The LNLS Users Committee – LNLSUC– is organising a series of live online seminars on the latest LNLS scientists research. As the pandemic continues, LNLS Users Group Seminar series is our way to stay connected and hear from our users and LNLS scientists about their research and results.

In the frame of LNLS Users Group Seminar series, monthly online lectures will be held, in which examples of recent results of experiments carried out at the LNLS and what science Sirius will enable. Join us and learn about the techniques scientists use to run their experiments, discuss the impact that these developments could have on the scientific community, then there will be the opportunity to ask our scientists any questions you may have via the Zoom ‘Q & A’ option.

LNLS Users Group Seminar series typically will be held on the last Tuesday of the month from 4:00-4:40 pm BRT with a Q&A session from 4:40-5:00 pm BRT. The upcoming Zoom presentations, with abstracts and links are available below.

Regina Cély Barroso

On behalf of LNLSUC

Speaker: Mateus Borba Cardoso (Soft and Biological Matter Division – DMB)

Title: SARS-CoV-2 and nanomedicine: What do they have in common?

Abstract: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak has taken the world’s attention due to the unprecedented Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Therefore, the scientific community must use this moment to reflect and understand what structural characteristics give the virus such a high targeting and infectious efficiency. One of the main challenges in nanomedicine relies on designing successful targeting strategies. Currently-available nanoparticle formulations undergo non-specific interactions that result on random drug-delivery and cellular internalization profiles. These interactions deviate nanoparticles from their intended path, generate a series of off-target effects and leave them more vulnerable, for example, to phagocyte clearance. Viruses, in turn, are considered as successful examples of targeted nanoparticles that were refined through evolution. Along this talk, I will shed light on the SARS-CoV-2 and propose to look at it as a highly-efficient targeted nanoparticle, establishing an analogy with the current challenges regarding synthetic targeted nanomaterials.

Speaker: Ricardo Donizeth Reis (Extreme condition x-ray Methods of Analysis – EMA beamline group)

Title: Understanding quantum materials by X-ray techniques under extreme conditions.

Abstract: Many of today’s most exciting and potentially useful materials display states of matter that seem to be explicable only by applying quantum mechanical models. This is perhaps unsurprising as these materials can be host to a complex medley of ingredients that include many-body interactions between spins, electrons and phonons. The ground states frequently exhibit cooperative properties, such as superconductivity, charge or spin-order, Kondo effect, or exotic excitations such as Weyl or Majorana fermions. Besides the fundamental interest in understanding such materials, there is also the prospect of controlling their properties and putting them to use. Therefore, deciphering what causes quantum states of matter to form remains one of the most pressing challenges facing modern physics. In this talk, I will highlight how we can shed light on the building blocks of these materials by a combination of synchrotron techniques (x-ray absorption, diffraction, and scattering) with external pressure (hydrostatic and uniaxial), low temperature and high magnetic field in order to enable a continuous, clean and reversible tuning of quantum correlations. Our aim with this work is to drive materials through the critical region where the state of matter changes and inherently quantum effects dominate in order to probe the electronic, magnetic and structural properties as a function of lattice contraction. For that I will focus on materials that are on the verge of a phase instability with distinct crystalline structures and with electronic behavior displaying nontrivial topology.

Link: https://us02web.zoom.us/meeting/register/tZUuceyopz4sGtQL-tBw-x3YMnn5Z_InjWzm

Speaker: Ana Carolina de Mattos Zeri – Manacá (MAcromolecular micro and NAnoCrystAllography) beamline group

Title: Structural Biology at Sirius: MANACA beamline and new developments in macromolecular crystallography

Abstract: MANACÁ (Macromolecular Micro and NAno CrystAllography), first beamline in scientific commissioning at Sirius (LNLS/CNPEM), is dedicated to a range of crystallography techniques, including the most recent, serial crystallography (SX). Originally developed for use in XFELs (Xray Free Electron Lasers), SX takes advantage of micro-sized focal spots and higher flux from new light sources, as Sirius, to acquire data from hundreds of thousands of microcrystals per experiment. Experiments where samples are presented to the beam in microchip-like devices or liquid jets are already being used in other SR sources, and will be implemented at Sirius. The possibility of working with very small crystals, and also studying them at room temperature, opens new avenues for the exploration of biochemical reactions and drug development. Details of the beamline construction and commissioning, as well as first experiments, will be presented.

Link: https://us02web.zoom.us/meeting/register/tZAlcOuhrTgqHtDqKzASJYUd5dQPuB76_7Pe

Speaker: Amelie Claire Rochet – Quati (X-ray Spectroscopy with Temporal Resolution) beamline group

Title: How heterogeneous catalysis will benefit from the new synchrotron source Sirius

Abstract: Synchrotrons have been used to study heterogeneous catalysis for as long as synchrotrons have existed. Due to high penetration of X-rays and non-destructive nature of analysis, X-rays are perfectly suited for studies of catalytic phenomena under in situ/operando conditions. The development of 4th generation synchrotron radiation facilities, such as SIRIUS [1], with improvement of brilliance and coherence properties, opens new ways towards catalysts characterisation, in particular with emerging imaging methodologies [2]. Moreover, the possibility of working with faster acquisition, better spatial resolution, higher sensitivity to various chemical and physical properties opens new avenues for the exploration of catalytic reactions. In this talk, I will present an overview of techniques that will be available at Sirius for getting a deep understanding of catalytic materials. In particular, I will focus on recent studies of chemical, morphological and structural properties of both model and real catalysts under in situ or operando conditions.

[1] Lin, L., Milas, N., Mukai, A. H. C., Resende, X. R., De Sá, F. H. (2014) J. Sync. Rad. 21 904

[2] Passos, A. R., Rochet, A., Manente, L. M., Suzana, A. F., Harder, R., Cha, W., Meneau, F. (2020) Nat. Comm. 11 4733

Link: https://us02web.zoom.us/meeting/register/tZcocOGprTgtE91zzn5EwDj1A6mpLdTGh3Xf

Speaker: Carlos A. Pérez – Carnaúba (X-Ray Nanoscopy) beamline group

Title: X-ray imaging methods and spatially-resolved X-ray spectroscopy at Sirius: potential applications in agronomy, environmental toxicology, and geochemistry

Abstract: Essential elements or micronutrients in low concentrations (often called trace elements) are required for plant, animal, and human nutrition. Nonessentials metal(loid)s are phytotoxic and/or zootoxic and are widely known as toxic elements. Regarding this, particularly important are those studies related to understanding the relationship between physicochemical properties of these materials and their toxicity that affects the ecosystems due to their extensive transformations. Environmental materials are intrinsically complex consisting of multiple solid phases where pollutants species at low concentration are heterogeneously distributed among different phases. Studies also in-vitro and in-vivo conditions would be preferentially conducted to properly understand their physicochemical properties and thus to assess the impact of these materials in complex systems. Given the complexity and heterogeneity of these microenvironments, analytical techniques capable of having a high spatial resolution, elemental sensitivity while preserving the main features of the volume under investigation, are well-preferred. In my presentation, an overview of synchrotron-based x-ray microscopy and spectromicroscopy techniques such as SR-XRF imaging, XRF tomography, and spatially-resolved XANES analysis, will be illustrated with some examples from the fields of agro-environmental, ecotoxicology, nanotoxicology, and geochemistry. A brief introduction to the Coherence X-Ray Nanofocus (CARNAÚBA) beamline will also be given, highlighting the capability for performing x-ray imaging and spectroscopic measurements on samples coming from those above-mentioned research areas. I will also describe an ongoing challenging project for conducting in-situ as well as in-vivo experiments at the root-soil environment of plants.

Link: https://us02web.zoom.us/meeting/register/tZElde2grDovHNEGnABvFB-_Igtlzzh-H1-q

Speaker: Tulio Costa. Rizuti Rocha – IPÊ (Inelastic scattering and PhotoElectron spectroscopy) beamline group

Title: Probing elementary excitations in solids and molecules with RIXS

Abstract: Atoms in crystals are not standing still, they vibrate around equilibrium positions forming displacement waves that propagate. It is the dynamics of this collective motion that enable sound to propagate through solids. Excited electrons in crystals also have rich dynamics forming a plethora of collective modes and quasiparticles involving their charge, spin, and orbital, like plasmons, excitons, magnons, polarons. A key factor to model the macroscopic properties of solids, like superconductivity, ferroelectricity, thermoelectricity among others is to determine the type of excitations present, their energy and momentum dispersion. The experimental investigation of elementary excitations is based on the inelastic scattering of probe-particles such as electrons, neutrons and photons. In this talk I will explain how the resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) technique can be used to measure the spectrum of excitations in solids and molecules, showing examples of my current research in collaboration with LNLS users. I will also highlight the main features and status of the IPE beamline of Sirius and the RIXS endstation.

Link: https://us02web.zoom.us/meeting/register/tZYqcumqqzMiG9IIA2jA3AWjb-eJ9Rk30cQF 

Speaker: Nathaly L. Archilha – MOGNO (X-ray Micro and Nanotomography) beamline group

Title: Time-resolved experiments at Mogno beamline – applications in groundwater remediation and oil recovery

Transport in porous media is related to many fields of research and there are still several open questions, mainly related to pore scale events. The oil and gas industry has developed a lot of knowledge related to non-reactive and multiphase flow in porous media, relating pore scale events to field scale observations, which is known as upscaling. However, the same type of knowledge using a reactive fluid, covering areas such as groundwater remediation, is still very limited. In this talk, I will present results of time-resolved X-ray microtomography experiments in two different areas: enhanced oil recovery using Si nanoparticles and groundwater remediation using zero-valent iron nanoparticles. Both nanoparticles, at the time of the experiment, were well known for promoting or oil recovery or remediating groundwater for a specific family of contaminants. The proposal, in both experiments, was to investigate pore scale events, using an in-house developed flow cell, to bring new information to this field from the pore scale perspective. In addition, I will be commenting on current challenges in these areas and how Mogno’s unique design can help resolve open issues.

Link: https://us02web.zoom.us/meeting/register/tZIqc-yrqDopH9ByKQjAjd-GHINcNCKAhGgz

Speaker: Raul de Oliveira Freitas – IMBUIA (Infrared Multiscale Beamline for Ultra-resolved Imaging Applications) beamline group

Title: Infrared ultramicroscopy as a decisive tool for chemical and optical analysis of multidisciplinar nanomaterials.

Abstract: The use of infrared (IR) radiation from storage rings has brought unprecedented opportunities in label-free chemical analysis of materials. Such breakthrough was intrinsically connected to the higher brightness of the synchrotron IR compared to the classic back body thermal sources. Hence, the era of IR microscopy had started, and synchrotron facilities were meeting points for advanced spatial-spectral chemical imaging. In the last decade, the interest in sub-microscopic properties of the matter became a day-by-day demand and the classical diffraction limit of light prevented IR microscopy to follow those updates. In this presentation, the ultramicroscopy modality named synchrotron IR nanospectroscopy (SINS) is presented as an established analytical technique able to access complex optical and vibrational `properties of multidisciplinary materials at the nanoscale. In special, it will be presented the advances brought by this modality to the IR users’ program at the LNLS. Drug delivery, new energy materials, in-liquid nano-chemistry of biosystems and nano-optics of quantum materials are some of cases to be approached in this talk.

Link: https://us02web.zoom.us/meeting/register/tZcvcemtqz8sGNfZ1EAxwgkbodrajc9HSCFm

Speaker: LNLS Users Group PhD thesis Award 2021 Winner

The decision will be announced during the closing session of the 31st

RAU/LNLS November 11th 2021, and published at the LNLSUG webpage.